|Intelligent Systems And Their Societies||Walter Fritz|
(Including artificial IS's, human beings and their societies)
As can be seen from the above, See Ethics of the artificial Intelligent System (For continuous reading, like a book - do not enter here now). and Ethics in Human Beings (For continuous reading, like a book - do not enter here now). everything except the use of emotions is common to artificial and natural IS's. So we base our scientific ethics on that which is common, that which is true for all IS's, be they artificial or natural.
This has interesting consequences. Now we can say: "Insofar as a human being is an IS, he should do what an IS would do". And what our (theoretical) IS would do, can be calculated, even though with difficulty. If your personal idea of an ethical action is different, you can still use the scientific ethical action to advantage as a reference, "Here the scientific ethical action is such, but my ethical action is such other because..." If due to philosophic considerations, religious beliefs or due to customs, morals, or standards of conduct, an IS does not wish to do one of the scientific ethical actions, that are possible in a given situation, it should be conscious that the response selected, because of the definition (For continuous reading, like a book - do not enter here now). of the ethical action, is worse for reaching its objectives than the scientific one.
You may ask, does such an ethical action exist? Can there be an action that is of advantage to the originating IS and also of advantage to all the other affected IS's? Isn't it the case that an advantage for one IS brings the same amount of disadvantage to other IS's? Usually commercial enterprises are of a greater advantage than disadvantage to a society, otherwise they can't sell, and cease to exist. Also their personnel has greater advantages in working there than in not doing so, otherwise they would leave the company. At the same time the company has greater advantage than disadvantage in keeping its personnel, otherwise it would discharge them. All commercial contracts are of more advantage then disadvantage to the affected enterprises, otherwise they would not sign them. Note that treaties between IS's, not belonging to the same society, i.e. sovereign nations, are kept only while mutually profitable.
Within a society the mutual contact between IS's is frequent (by definition); the effects of an attack soon get back to the attacker, due to the intense correlation existing within a society. That is not the case between members of different societies. For instance there is honesty within a group of thieves, but none towards persons on the outside.
Also, in the past, in some societies, it was customary to treat persons belonging to the same society quite differently from those belonging to another society.
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