Intelligent Systems And Their Societies Walter Fritz



We have included this glossary to define terms; all defined words are in an alphabetical order. They are not used in this e-book with any other meaning.

Abstract concept
For an explanation of abstract and concrete concepts, please see the third paragraph of concept.

To perform an action.

An action is the output of a system, related to a sense input. It changes the environment. The action is the implementation (doing, performing) of the response part of a response rule.

A bit is a "binary" data type; that is, it expresses one of only two alternatives. It is a 1 or a 0, a yes or a no, true or false, black or white, something is or is not, voltage or no voltage, an excited nerve or an inhibited nerve. (We know that not everything in our world is black or white, but we can still use this binary form of representation by expressing intermediate states, to any desired precision, with a series of bits.)

The physical part of an intelligent system (IS), for instance a humanoid robot, the activity within the bran is the mind.

Chronological memory
Chronological memory is a list of rules (response rules) in the order that they were used.

Communication is a movement of matter or energy between two parts of the universe. This matter or energy can be a carrier of information.

Composite concept
A composite concept (combined concept), is a concept, that has other concepts as its content. It is not an elementary concept.

A concept is the basic element of thought. It is a physical, material storage of information (in neurons or electronics). All the concepts in memory are interrelated, they form a web, a net.

Total and parts
Concepts have links to those higher level concepts of which they themselves are parts. A wheel is part of a car; the concept "wheel" has a link to the concept "car". The concept "car" in turn is part of the concept "vehicle", and has the corresponding link. Concepts also have links in the other direction, namely to their parts. Naturally parts can themselves have parts. (The concept "tree" has links to its parts, to the concepts "roots", "stem", "branches" and "leaves").

Abstracts and concretes
Another set of links is to what we call more "abstract" concepts and more "concrete" concepts. The concept "tree" has a link to the more abstract concept "plant". We can also say a tree is an example of a plant. The other way around concepts also have links to their more concrete concepts, to their examples. The concept "animal" has a link to the concept "mammal" and the concept mammal has a link to the concept "mouse".
[More information on concepts.]

Correlation is a statistical relationship between before and after. A correlation exists if, in a high percentage of samples, whenever the transformation A exists, the transformation B exists later on. The same is also true for two parts of the universe (structures instead of transformations). It is also true for a part and a transformation or a transformation and a part.

Note: When the correlation nears 100%, this is called a scientific law (or law of nature).

Elementary Concept
A elementary concept is a representation (in concept form) of a sensation or an elementary action.
The brain receives information (sensations) from the sense organs, and represents each sensation as an elementary concept.
Also the brain represents the most elementary actions, that the system can perform, as elementary concepts.
Elementary concepts have no links to concrete concepts. They are already the most concrete information that the brain possesses. (See concept). In place of links to parts, they have detailed information of the sensation or elementary action.

We refer to the available, usable energy, not its absolute level.

The environment of a system is that part of the universe that is in communication with the system, but is not part of the system.

Ethical Action
An ethical action is an action that brings the IS nearer to its objectives.

Ethical Objective
An ethical objective is an objective that serves to reach a higher level objective and finally serves to reach the main objective of the IS.

A science that indicates which response the IS should do to reach its objectives.
[More information on ethics.

Experience is something that has happened to the IS during some moment of its existence. It includes the situation that occurred, the action done, and the results.

The frontier is the physical limit of the system within the rest of the universe. The frontier includes those parts of the universe having more correlations with each other than with the rest of the universe. Through this frontier, passes all communication with the environment of the system.

Governing Subsociety (GS)
The governing subsociety is that subsociety of the society, that decides which action the society will perform.

Information is the sum of concepts and response rules extracted from a communication. The maximum amount of information that can be extracted from a communication is treated in the science of "Information Theory".

Note: For instance, the electromagnetic waves reaching the eye are a communication. When their pattern is recognized and converted in the eye into surfaces, edges, colors, and others, then information exists.

Intelligence is the system's level of performance in reaching its objectives.

Intelligent System (IS)
It is a system that learns during its existence. (In other words, it learns, for each situation, which response permits it to reach its objectives.) It continually acts, mentally and externally, and by acting reaches its objectives more often than pure chance would indicate. (Normally much more often.) For acting, and for its internal processes, it consumes energy.
[More information on intelligent systems.]

Note: For this definition, examples of an intelligent system would be humans, animals and "artificial"   intelligent systems, such as artificial insects and mobile autonomous systems and humanoid robots.

Learning is the increase in the amount of response rules and concepts in the memory of an IS.

A member is a part of a society.

A memory is a storage of information. The proposed brain uses two memories, the chronological memory and the memory of concepts and rules.

Memory of concepts and rules
It is a list of all existing concepts and rules. For each it gives the label (a number) and the contents of all branches of the concept or the rule.

The processes and memories within the brain of an IS. The main processes are transforming sensations into concepts, representing the present situation by concepts, choosing a response rule, and responding according to the response rule. Further processes are the creation of higher level concepts and of response rules. Memories are the stored concepts and response rules.

An objective is a certain situation that some systems try to reach. Normally there are many levels of objectives; we talk of "subobjectives" and their subobjectives.

A part is the result of mentally dividing the universe. We can do this at various levels. A part can also be created when we mentally divide a part.

A pattern is a regular occurrence of objects, events or their relationships.
In our case a regular occurrence of concepts in a situation of a rule in memory (or of successive rules in memory). This can be between the present situation and the future situation of a rule.
It can be between the concept itself, the amount of equal concepts, the place of a concept in a situation or between parts of concepts.

A plan is the storage of a series of responses (or response rules) that the IS will perform one after the other. A plan is a composite response.

Pleasure is a variable of the IS that indicates how close the IS is to reaching its objective.

Present Situation
The present situation is the situation as it exists at a given time.
[More information on Present Situation.]

The response is that part of a response rule that indicates what the IS should do in a certain situation. It is one or several concept(s) whose execution by the physical parts of the system produces a change in the environment.

Response Rule
A response rule , often just called a rule, is the result of an experience, or of a review of existing response rules. It is the physical storage by the IS of a situation, the corresponding response, and the resulting situation.
More information on Response Rules.

Note: A response rule is similar to a "stimulus - response arc" as used in biology, or to a "production" as used in expert systems and knowledge bases.

The senses receive communications from the environment and, in some systems, codify them, and send this information to a center for further processing. We call this codified information "sensations".

Sense is that part of a system that can receive communications from the environment.

The situation is a series of concepts that, in some systems expresses the information extracted from its environment, through its senses. The system expresses the situation with elementary or higher level concepts.

Society is a system, composed of many parts, which we call members, and which are intelligent systems or societies themselves. Since the basic building block of societies is the intelligent system, it has all the properties of an intelligent system. It may have other properties, since it is composed of many intelligent systems. Its objectives are the common objectives of its members. The life span of its members is appreciably shorter than that of the society or subsociety to which they belong. (In our concept of society, we include only those systems where this is true).
[More information on society.]

Stimulus is the input into a system. Input is the communication the system has received, at a given time, from its environment.

Structure is a part of the universe, with a limited extension in space (only). This part consists of other parts that have fixed spatial relations between themselves.

When a society contains groups of members and these groups have all the properties of a society, we call these groups "subsocieties".

A system is part of the universe, with a limited extension in space and time. Stronger or more correlations exist between one part of the system and another, than between this part of the system and parts outside of the system.
[More information on Systems.]

Transformation is a change in the spatial or temporal relationships of parts of the universe.

The universe is all that exists, taken as a total.

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Last Edited 26 November 2013 / Walter Fritz
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