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Robots are our
Intelligent Systems


machine learning - cognitive science - robot brain - artificial brain - humanoid robot



Walter Fritz

First version: Jan 27, 1997

In this site you will find a definition of the "Intelligent system". This definition helps us to better understand how we act, how other persons act, and furthermore permits us to build an artificial intelligent system, namely a robot.
You will read what we can possibly know about our environment, how we represent, in the brain, the situation in which we find ourselves and how we choose an appropriate action. Besides this, and always based on the intelligent system, we lay the foundations for developing a scientific ethics, a sociology as a hard science and a scientific philosophy.
Finally you will read about the consequences of having artificial intelligent systems with us in the near future and how you can increase your intelligence and that of your children.

For continuous reading, like a book - starthere
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Dedication and Foreword
Definition of Words
Intelligent Systems
Artificial Intelligent Systems
"Robby" a Household Robot
Robot Brain
Consequences of Artificial Intelligent Systems
Persons as Intelligent Systems
How to increase our Intelligence
Ethics as a Science
A Scientific Philosophy
Interaction between Intelligent Systems
Human Societies
Peace between Nations
Unemployment - Causes and Solutions
Social Dividend
Extensive Summary
A Science Fiction Story
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Definition of Words
In these pages, some words, related to intelligent systems, have a slightly different meaning than in their normal use. You will find them underlined, so that by clicking you can know exactly what they mean here. Thus your concept of the word will be the same as mine and you will understand what is explained.
For details see: Definition of Words (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Intelligent Systems
Many definitions of intelligence exist, but for our purposes we use the following: intelligence is the ability to reach ones objectives. A system is more intelligent if it reaches its objectives faster and easier. This includes the ability to learn to do this. The intelligence of a system is a property of its mind. The mind is the functioning of its brain.
A system is part of the universe, with a limited extension in space and time. Stronger or more correlations exist between one part of the system and another, than between this part of the system and parts outside the system.
An intelligent system is a system that has its own main objective, as well as senses and actuators. To reach its objective it chooses an action based on its experiences. It can learn by generalizing the experiences it has stored in its memories.
Examples of intelligent systems are: persons, higher animals, robots, extraterrestrials, a business, a nation.
For details please see: Intelligent Systems (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Artificial Intelligent Systems
First humanity had tools, then we added force to them, and had the machine, now we are adding intelligence and will get robots and intelligent computers.But why build artificial intelligent systems? Because they help us better than tools or machines to live more comfortably! Eventually, they will free us of all material worries.
An artificial intelligent system is a computer program that has parts for each of the functions described in the intelligent system document. It functions the same way that a biological brain does, only it performs this in an electronic way instead of by activating neurons. We can say that it is like the proverbial black box; it has inputs and learns which outputs get the most approval by human beings. It stores experiences in its memory, generalizes them, and thus can deal with new circumstances (new inputs).
Can an artificial intelligent system within a computer really think? Since it performs the same functions and can have the same outputs, it really thinks, it is not simulating thought. Does such a computer have free will? An artificial intelligent system needs a randomizing of its actions, so that it can learn better responses; you could call these randomized actions a kind of free will.
For more information on artificial intelligence programs, that are complete intelligent systems and on the best humanlike robots existing today, see: Artificial Intelligent Systems (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Robby: a Household Robot
The author believes that now a humanoid household and light assembly robot should be built. It would cost less than 10000 dollars, would be 4 1/2 feet high and weigh 24 kg (53 lb.). It has a "General Learner 3" program as a brain.
To check out the difficulties and show that this is feasible, he has built a prototype body and is working on the brain. The cost of purchased materials was 5200 dollars (without the computer). Many persons call it an android.
For the time being the computer brain and air compressor will be separate, connected to the body by cables.
See: here details about Robby (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Robot Brain
A proposed Brain for a Household Robot
A household robot that can learn new activities is better than one that has a set of programmed activities. New tasks arise, and it is better to teach them to the robot instead of asking the factory to develop an expanded version of the brain program.
The author is proposing a more advanced brain for a household robot, similar to the General Learner 3.
This brain works by reacting to a situation (stimulus and response), in the same way as a biological brain. It can learn to recognize objects, learn what action is appropriate for a situation and even learn new ways of "thinking".
See the details here (Enter for continuous reading, like a book)..


Consequences of Artificial Intelligent Systems for our Human Society
The widespread use of artificial intelligent systems will bring prosperity and wellbeing to the population of our planet. Intelligent Systems as robots, as intelligent automation and as advisor programs within computers, will do all the work that we do not wish to do. We will be free of material worries and will be able to enjoy life.
But this is a new "industrial revolution" and the transition from a society based on work to one based on leisure has to be handled carefully. Widespread unemployment can be avoided by spreading the available work between all that are willing to work. The method is a reduction of weekly working hours. Finally work per week will be so low that a different means of income and maintaining purchasing power, has to be found. This may be the "social dividend" (For continuous reading, like a book - do not enter here now). Each citizen would be a shareholder of the state and receive a monthly dividend. The funds for this would come mainly from the profits of the robotized factories.
Are robots a danger to humanity? A robot with a main objective of pleasing human beings is of great help, but a robot with a main objective of its own survival is very dangerous. Since they will be thinking much faster and more accurately than we, they will, for their own purposes use all available resources and we would be helpless. Such a robot should be illegal and should be destroyed as soon as detected.
For details see: Consequences of Artificial Intelligent Systems (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Persons as Intelligent Systems
If you observe a person as an intelligent system, you will understand much better why he acts the way he does. The brain selects all Actions and we have seen in the "intelligent systems" document what the processes of the brain are. While most persons believe that we think with words, that is not true, we think with concepts and use words only to remember the results of our thinking and for communicating.
Every intelligent system has a main objective, which in animals is the survival instinct. Survival is also the main objective of human beings, even though that is not obvious.
Except for a few primitive activities, we have learned all our actions. These learned actions are the basis for our habits, our character and our mental outlook. We can even develop a philosophy from the standpoint of the intelligent system.
For details see: Persons as Intelligent Systems (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


How to increase our Intelligence
Observing the processes of the artificial intelligent system, we can easily see the errors of thinking and acting that most people do. Let's learn from this.
First we need an objective, we need to know what we want. Then we should be certain of the facts of the present situation. We should not believe what they are, but investigate until we know the facts. Now we should elaborate alternative plans, look at short term and long term consequences, and choose the best. Finally we have to act; without acting we cannot reach our objectives.
By following these steps in their order, we will reach our objectives better and faster, we will be more intelligent.
For details see: How to increase our Intelligence (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Ethics as a Science
We start with an artificial intelligent system, for instance an advanced robot, that needs to know what to do in a given situation. And that is what ethics is about, knowing what to do and what not to do. So the robot has to act ethically. This it can do, by using actions that help to reach its objectives and that, at the same time, are of more advantage than disadvantage for every one of the affected beings. And what is true for a robot is just as true for a human being. Thus a scientific ethics and an experimental ethics, based on well defined terms, is created and applied to robots and human beings.
For details see: Ethics as a Science (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


A Scientific Philosophy
Let's observe some of the best known philosophies that the ancient Greeks created. Once we have done that, what's our conclusion, what can we learn from them?
Science advances in many fields. Now, science starts to see the person as an intelligent system, the relation between this system and its environment and the processes that occur within that system. Based on this, we can answer very basic philosophical questions, for instance: why do we live?
Here we start a process, that will finally give us a scientific philosophy, a philosophy as a hard science.
See details at: A Scientific Philosophy (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Interaction between Intelligent Systems
Intelligent Systems influence the actions of other Intelligent Systems. They cooperate, they fight. Some gain considerable power over others and use it to manage organizations. Finally an important way of influencing others is by teaching.
Have a look at: Interaction between Intelligent Systems (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Human Societies
Our human society is so important, because without it, even if you are an energetic and brilliant person, you would live as an uncivilized savage. Therefore we should support it.
Today, sociology, the study of societies is mainly a "soft" science. Its descriptions are mostly of a qualitative kind and allow only imprecise predictions. But we can transform it into a hard science, if all the concepts we use are exact enough so that we can use them in mathematical formulas. This we can do by using the precisely defined concepts related to intelligent systems. An important sub-system of a human society is the governing subsociety.
War is the most destructive event a human society can suffer. War between nations can be avoided, when both are part of the same higher political unit.
Finally we can find a better system of government if we base the organization of government on the individual as an intelligent system.
For details see: Human Societies (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Peace between Nations
Another great problem are the wars. They can kill many of the best young citizens of a nation and destroy the work of several generations.
When we understand intelligent systems we will realize that each always tries to reach its own objectives. If these are in conflict with those of another intelligent system, only a higher political unit can resolve them peacefully. What is true of the individual intelligent system, also applies to nations, meaning that to avoid all wars on this planet a planetary government has to be created.
For much detail see: Peace (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Eliminate Unemployment
Unemployment is increasing in all parts of the world to levels unknown before. The reason is that with better automatization and robotization fewer persons are needed to produce the same amount of goods. The government can reduce unemployment by reducing the hours worked per week in industry and commerce.
For an analysis see: Eliminate Unemployment (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Social Dividend
This is a final solution for the lack of work. It is based on the ownership of government by the citizen. At the same time, it reduces somewhat the gap of income between the very rich and the very poor. This should reduce social unrest and the crime rate.
For an analysis see: Social Dividend (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Extensive Summary
For a detailed review of all the important points made in this site, please see:
Extensive Summary (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


Index of Subjects
Look up a subject you are interested in, here (Enter for continuous reading, like a book).


The ideas expressed in these books and articles (Enter for continuous reading, like a book) are those that most influenced my site.




When you have read the details indicated above, you will understand how your brain works, and you will better understand the actions of other persons. In the scientific ethics you will have a guide to acting in your own and in foreign countries. You will realize the importance of our human society and the need to support it. Looking at the world from the standpoint of intelligent systems, you will have an answer to basic philosophical questions. Finally, you will know what to expect from artificial intelligent systems in the near future, how to avoid their unfavorable consequences, while enjoying the better quality of living they provide.


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so that they too may better understand their mind and their society.
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Related Web Sites

(Exterior links)

Cognitive and Agent Architectures / Android World,
The Control Systems Group


Look up the following words in Yahoo or Google:

Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science,
Machine Learning, Robots,
Intelligent Software Agents,

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Last Edited 17 October 2014 / Walter Fritz