|Intelligent Systems And Their Societies||Walter Fritz|
A guiding principle:
Interaction, or influence of one IS upon another,
is always related to objectives.
The interaction between Intelligent Systems is an intermediate subject between single intelligent systems and societies, which treat a collection of very many intelligent systems. But it is of great practical value, because that is what we do daily: we interact with other intelligent systems.
Influencing other Intelligent Systems
Keep in mind that the other IS only acts to reach its own objectives. So if you want to influence his (or her) actions, you have to change his momentary objective. To do this, "put yourself into the shoes of the other person"; see everything from his point of view. Keep in mind what his probable objectives are, and talk about them and his interests.
To influence these objectives; to change them slightly, first you have to work out, in your mind, exactly what you want. Now you can present your ideas to the other person, explaining clearly and concisely why and how they are of advantage to him to reach his objectives.
Use emotions, they are much stronger than reasons. Emotions are contagious, so when we feel and express an emotion, this is likely to produce the same emotion in the other person. Joy produces joy, fear produces fear, and, most importantly, enthusiasm produces enthusiasm. Only if emotions fail, use reason. Now arouse his interest by giving him detailed knowledge of the matter at hand. Explain why this is of advantage to him. Center his attention on how to do it, explain with detail; forget the question about whether or not to do it.
There is no need to stay passive about emotions, lets understand and use them:
Only as a last resort, use force. You can force him to do something by telling him what you will do to him if he does not act as you wish. You can "call him names". Finally you can attack him physically, beat him. What you are trying to do here is to change his objectives by showing him undesirable alternatives that you are creating.
The situation where one IS acts in such a way that it hinders another in reaching its objectives is an attack. Normally this causes the other to also attack. These mutual attacks are a fight. The result of an attack normally is a gain by one and a loss by the other (often both are worse off at the end).
If both are part of the same society, that society will try to prevent the fight and resolve the conflict by administrative measures.
A IS can be characterized by the percentage of each type of response: What percentage of actions are neutral, what percentage are cooperative and what percentage are attacks.
Which of the three types of response an IS chooses, depends largely on its previous experience. It will choose more often the type that was successful in the past.
There is an excellent and well known book on this subject: "How to win friends and influence people" by Dale Carnegie.
Since human intelligent systems have a limited life, they can learn only part of what is needed in a society. Each does what she/he has learned. (See more details on this in "The members of a society have a limited life span . . ." (For continuous reading, like a book - do not enter here now).
A cooperation (trade) between two IS's arises if one has a surplus of consumer goods, tools or knowledge of a certain kind, that it can exchange for the surplus of a different kind of the other IS.
These are the two ways persons cooperate with one another:
Here you will read specifically about human beings, even though what is said is true for many intelligent systems, notably some higher animals.
One would think that the cooperation between intelligent systems results only in an exchange of goods and services with others. But that is not the case.
Some persons have found that it is to their advantage to organize this cooperation. To organize a group of persons that cooperate. This they do in economic matters (manufacture and commerce) and also in civic matters (government, religion, clubs).
This organizing is to the mutual advantage of the organizer and the organized, but it also gives "power" to the organizer. This power is used for organizing and thus creating benefits for all, but is also misused to a lesser or greater degree by the organizer to reach his or her personal objectives.
What is power?
Power is, if an intelligent system can get another to act for the benefit of the first system's objectives. In other words it changes the other systems objectives.
We measure power by the amount of man-hours per month that another Intelligent System is willing to spend on the objectives of the first Intelligent System. Power is also sometimes called "authority" or "might".
How is this power created?
The one obeying gets used to obeying and so gives power to the one commanding. The one obeying has learned, from past experience, that it is better for reaching its own objective, to do what the powerful person wants. He gets into the habit of obeying.
The powerful person needs to know how the other will react to his words, needs to know the objectives of the other one. For instance, in the case of a dog, making noise with the eating pan, to make him come.
Delegation of power
If the organization that manages the cooperation between IS's is very large, a delegation of power to intermediary management is needed. One person cannot manage all the details.
Still another way that one IS affects others is by teaching; at home, at the job, in schools and in universities.
Teaching offers an opportunity to learn new concepts and response rules; new ideas and new know-how. It also shows what new sub objectives exist, for reaching an objective.
Using what is explained above, your life will be easier. You will better understand the actions of other persons, and you yourself will be more successful in dealing with them.
For continuous reading, like a book - continue
Jump to e-book Contents / top of this page
Copyright © New Horizons Press