Intelligent Systems And Their Societies Walter Fritz



Skepticism says, "There is a fundamental doubt that absolute knowledge and absolute certainty can be obtained".

This is quite true. The artificial IS can never really know the "cause of all sensations", the world outside the IS. There are many aspects of it, for which the IS lacks senses, and therefore it has no basis for knowledge. This is one reason, why the representation of the "cause of all sensations" is incorrect. Another reason is the existence of preconceptions; concepts caused by previous experiences, with which the artificial IS has build up its representation of the world. It does not change this representation without good reason. This makes it much more difficult to receive new communications that contradict the representation of the world formed so far. Only by repeated experiences does it become convinced that it has to change this representation.

Also the exactitude of the description is very questionable. With time the precision increases, but the concepts formed always remain incomplete and doubtful. They are numbers, that relate to other numbers. Some possible relations may be missing and the exactness of some relations probably is not yet extensively tested. Absolute certainty is impossible. Absolute knowledge, that is: knowing in all completeness what a certain part of this "cause of all sensations" is, remains quite impossible. Even the words "cause of all sensations" are concepts, and therefore not part of the environment. We cannot obtain absolute knowledge or certainty.

Skepticism seems to be quite well founded.


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Last Edited 30 July 2013 / Walter Fritz
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